BioGas Plant

What Is Biogas?

Biogas originates from bacteria in the process of bio-degradation of organic material under anaerobic (without air) conditions. In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic bacteria decompose organic matter and produce a gas mainly composed of methane (60%) and carbon dioxide called biogas. This gas can be compared to natural gas which is 99% methane.

 In simple Words Biogas define as,    

Biogas is produced from Dung or Manure (Ghober in Urdu or Phosi in Sairaki) of Cattles.

History & Background of Biogas

The idea that rotting vegetable matter gives off a flammable gas has been understood since the ancient Persians. In modern times, the first sewage plant was built in Bombay in 1859; an idea that was brought to the UK in 1895, when the gas produced was used to light street lamps.

This system was developed in the UK and Germany in the early 1900s for the treatment of sewage. Centralised drainage systems were being installed in many towns in Europe and anaerobic digestion was seen as a means to reduce the volume of solid matter in the sewage. The gas produced was occasionally used as a source of energy, especially during the Second World War. Several sewage plants ran vehicles on biogas since then.

The use of farm manure to generate methane was developed, again in Bombay, in the 1930s. It was only developed for use by Indian villagers by KVIC (Khadi and Villages Industries Commission) in the early 1960s. This design, which used a floating steel gas drum, formed the basis of an ongoing Indian Government outreach programme to provide villagers with cooking fuel.

China started a similar programme in the 1960s and claimed that 5 million plants had been built by the early 1980s. The design was based on a septic tank.

In simple words, biogas is 200 years old technology but unfortunately, we as being Pakistani do not use this technology. We have not learnt yet to live independent!

Composition of Biogas

  • Methane, CH4                              50-75%
  • Carbon dioxide, CO2                   25-50%
  • Nitrogen, N2                                 0-10 %
  • Hydrogen, H2                               0-1 %
  • Hydrogen sulphide, H2S              0-3 %

·         Oxygen, O2                 

All Gases are in slung, but we need only Methane, because Methane is Flammable.

                

 

Diagram of Biogas Plant

2nd Diagram of Bio-Gas Plant

                          Carbon & Nitrogen Ratios For Various Materials Are Indicated Below:

Type of Material

Carbon :Nitrogen Ratio

Alfalfa hay

18 : 1

Bagasse

150 : 1

Cichen manure

25 : 1

Clover

2.7 : 1

Cow dung

25 : 1

Cow urine

0.8 : 1

Grass clippings

12 : 1

Kitchen refuse

6 – 10 : 1

Lucerne 

2 : 1

Pig droppings

20 : 1

Pig urine 

6 : 1

Potato tops

25 : 1

Sawdust 

200 – 500 : 1

Seaweed

80 : 1

Straw

60 – 200 : 1

Sewage sludge

13 : 1

Silage liquor

11 : 1

Slaughterhouse wastes

3 – 4 : 1

What Animal Gives How Much Slung Daily?

Sr.NO

Animal

Quantity of Dung (kg/day)

1

Cow, Heifer

10.0

2

Bullock

14.0

3

Buffalo

15.0

4

Young bovine

 5.0

5

Horse

14.0

6

Horse, young

 6.0

7

Pigs, over 8 score

 2.5

8

Pigs, under 8 score

 1.0

9

Ewes, rams and goats

 1.0

10

Gees and Turkeys

 0.2

11

Lambs

 0.5

12

Lambs

 0.1

13

10 hens                         

 0.4

 

In Simple Words, one cow gives 10 kg slung daily and one buffalo gives 15 kg slung daily.

Quantity of Biogas in One Kg of Slung

As you know ,methane is 50 to 75 % in kg of slung it means that 500 grams to 750 grams are available biogas in one kg of slung.

Dung of Four Cows & its Consumption

As we know, one cow gives 10 kgs Dung, it means Dung of four cows will be equal to (10*4)40kgs per day.

Dung of four cows in one month will be equal to (10*4*30)1200 kgs ,it means minimum biogas in 1200 kg Dung will be 600 kg which is very sufficient.

As I searched a normal family consumes one cylinder of 11 to 15 kgs in one month. It means you have very much biogas use to burn stove and use to produce electricity.

How much Electric Generator Consume Biogas In hour?

One KVA (1000 Watts) Electric Generator Consume Biogas In One Hour?  0.25 KG

Two KVA (2000 Watts) Electric Generators Consume Biogas In One Hour?  0.5 KG

2.5 KVA (2500 Watts) Electric Generator Consume Bogas In One Hour  0.6 KG

Three KVA (3000 Watts) Electric Generators Consume Biogas In One Hour? 0.74 KG

Four KVA (4000 Watts) Electric Generators Consume Biogas In One Hour?  0.86 KG

Five KVA (5000 Watts) Electric Generators Consume Biogas In One Hour?  0.99 KG

 

We use stove normally 3 hours per day, stove consume 250 grams gas in hour.

Total gas consumption per day of stove is:   (250*3/1000) .75kg (750grams).

Where as we have total gas 20 kg of four cows, it means, remaining gas is equal to

 (20-.75) 19.25 kg.

If you run one kva Generator to produce electricity, as we know one kva Generator consume gas 250 grams per hour, If you run it 24 hours then it need gas(.25*24) 6 kg.

But you have 19.25 kg gas; Generator will be run 77 hours at 19.25 kg gas.

If you use LPG gas, its cost will be (20kgs*140Current price of lpg) 2800 RS per day & (2800*30) 84000 RS per Month.

What it means, it means, you can save 84000 RS per month if you use Biogas!

 

Price of Electric Generators

Price of One KVA 14000 RS to 16000 Rs Approximately.

Price of Two KVA 18000 RS to 20,000 Rs Approximately.

Price of Three KVA 25,000 RS to 28000 Rs Approximately.

Price of Four KVA 30,000 RS to 35,000 Rs Approximately.

Price of Five KVA 37000 RS to 40,000 Rs Approximately.

Consumptions of Electric Appliances

Ceiling Fan56” 80 Watts

Pedestal Fan 24”  125 Watts

Iron 1000 Watts

Refrigerator full Size 600 Watts

Water Pump Medium Size 1600 Watts

Washing Machine 400 Watts

Bulb 100 Watts

Energy saver 25 Watts

Tube well 18500 Watts (25Hp Motor)

Example

Suppose, you have four cows, you want to use stove for three times cooking and produce electricity. As you know one cow gives 10 kg dung daily, it means total dung (10kg*4 cows) 40kgs per day. Hence as you know minimum 50% Methane in one kg dung. It means,(40kg/2)20 kg biogas will be produced. Normally stove takes 250 grams biogas per hour and use three hours per day. It means, stove will consume gas only (250grams*3) 750 grams (.75kg) per day. Remaining gas will be (20-.75)19.25 kgs.

Suppose you have 3KVA (3000 watts) Electric Generator, as you know 3KVA Generator consumes 740 grams biogas in one hour. If you run 24 hours then it will consume (740grams*24hours) 17760 grams (17.8kg).Where as you have 19.5 kg biogas, it means, it is sufficient for 3KVA Generator. You can run one water pump, One Refrigerator, One Washing Machine, Five Fans and Six Energy Savers 24 hours. When you run water pump then switch off refrigerator and washing machine.

Important!

You can use Surly as a Fish’s Feed or inserted into your fertilized lands.

Surly means drained dung.

Construction Procedure of Biogas Plant

Introduction

The success or failure of any biogas plant mainly depends upon the quality of construction works. To come to a successfully constructed biogas plant, the mason should not only respect the dimensions as indicated on the drawing but also follow the correct construction method.

1. Different Sizes of Plant

Model plants of 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 cubic meters capacity should be constructed. The table below gives some relevant data about these six different sizes of biogas plants.

Table 1

S.N.

Size of Plant

Daily Fresh Dung (Kg)

Daily Water Liters

Approx. No. Cattle Required

1.

4

24

24

2 – 3

2.

6

36

36

3 – 4

3.

8

48

48

4 – 6

4.

10

60

60

6 – 9

5.

15

90

90

9 – 14

6.

20

120

120

14 and more

 

A biogas plant consists of five main structure or components. The required quantity of dung and water is mixed in the inlet tank and this mix in the form of slurry is allowed to be digested inside the digester. The gas produced in the digester is collected in the dome, called as the gasholder. The digested slurry flows to the outlet tank from the dig through the manhole. The slurry then flows through overflow opening to the compost pit where it is collected and composted. The gas is supplied to the point of application through the pipeline.

Before deciding the size of plant, it is necessary to collect dung for several days to determine what is the average daily dung production. The amount of dung daily available helps in determining the capacity of the plant. For example, if 55 kg of dung is collected daily, a 8 m3 plant has to be selected. It should be kept in mind that at least six kg dung is required for 1 m3 of plant capacity. The important point to be considered is that the size of plant has to be selected on basis of available dung not on the family size.

If a plant is underfed, the gas production will be low; in this case, the pressure of the gas might not be sufficient to displace the slurry in the outlet chamber. This means that amount of slurry fed into the digester is more than the amount of slurry thrown out from the outlet. This will cause the slurry level to rise in the digester; gasholder and it may eventually enter to the gas pipe and sometimes, to the gas stove and lamp while opening the main valve. Therefore, the slurry should always be fed according to the prescribed amount as indicated, in the above table.

2. Construction Materials

If the construction materials to be used in the plant construction such as cement, sand, aggregate etc. are not of good quality, the quality of plant will be poor even if design and workmanship involved are excellent. In order to select these materials of best quality, their brief description regarding the specifications has been given hereunder. (The list construction materials are given in annex 1).

a) Cement

The cement to be used in the plant construction has to be of high quality portland cement from a brand with a good reputation. It must be fresh, without lumps and stored in a dry place. Bags of cement should never be stacked directly on the floor or against the walls but wooden planks should be placed on the floor to protect cement from dampness.

b) Sand

Sand for construction purpose must be clean. Dirty sand has a very negative effect on the strength of the structure. If the sand contains 3% or more impurities, it must be washed. The quantity of impurities especially the mud in the sand can be determined by a simple test using a bottle. This is called the ‘bottle test’. For this test, small quantity of sand is put in the bottle. After this, water is poured in and the bottle is stirred vigorously. The bottle is than left stationary to allow the sand to settle down. The particles of sand are heavier than that of mud so it settles down quickly. After 20-25 minutes, the layer of mud verses sand inside the bottle are measured. Course and granular sand can be used for concreting work but fine sand will be better for plastering work.

c) Gravel

Gravel should not be too big or very small. It should not be bigger than 25% of the thickness of concrete product where it is used in. As the slabs and the top of the dome are not more than 3″ thick, gravel should not be larger than 0.75″ (2 cm) in size. Furthermore, the gravel must be clean. If it is dirty, it should be washed with clean water.

d) Water

Water is mainly used for preparing the mortar for masonry work, concreting work and plastering. It is also used to soak bricks/stones before using them. Besides these, water is also used for washing sand and aggregates. It is advised not to use water from ponds and irrigation canals for these purposes, as it is usually too dirty. Dirty water has an adverse effect the strength of the structure; hence water to be used must clean.

e) Bricks

Bricks must be of the best quality locally available. When hitting two bricks, the sound must be clear. They must be well baked and regular in shape. Before use, bricks must be soaked for few minutes in clean water. Such bricks will not soak moisture) from the mortar afterwards.

f) Stones

If stones are to be used for masonry work, they have to be clean, strong and of good quality. Stones should be washed if they are dirty.

3. Construction Site Selection

The following points should be kept in mind when deciding on a site for biogas plant construction.

·         For proper functioning of the plant, the right temperature has to be maintained in the digester. Therefore, a sun site has to be selected.

·         To make plant operation easy and to avoid wastage raw material specially the dung, the plant must be as close as possible to the stable (cattle shed) and water source. If the nearest water source is at a distance of more than 20 minutes walk, the burden of fetching water becomes too much and no plant should be installed in such places.

·         If longer gas-pipe is used the cost will be increased, the pipe is expensive. Furthermore, longer pipe increase the risk of gas leakage due to more joints in it. The main valve has to be opened and closed before and after use Therefore, the plant should be as close as possible to the point of use so that the above problems are eliminated.

·         The edge of the foundation of the plant should be at least two meters away from the house or any other building to avoid risk of damages.

·         The plant should be at least 10 metres away from the well or any other under ground water sources to protect water from pollution.

4. Digging and Pit Depth

When a suitable site is selected, a small peg has to be stuck in the ground at the centre spot of the digester. A cord has to be attached to this peg with the length indicated on the drawing under dimension ‘C’. Now this cord is the radius of the digester pit and the circumference can be decided by moving the edge of the cord on circular fashion. The pit depth is indicated on the drawing under dimension ‘E’. The excavation work should only be started after deciding the location of manhole and outlet tank. The pit wal1s should be as vertical as possible and, most important, the pit bottom must be leveled and the earth must be untouched.

While digging, excavated soil should be thrown at least one foot away from the layout, so that it does not fall inside the pit when the construction work is in progress.

After digging the pit, a suitable arrangement must be made for the inlet pipe(s).

If because of hard rock or under ground water, the right depth can not be achieved, the pit has to be made as deep as possible, while after completion of the structure some protective measure have to be constructed so that the wal1s of outlet and dome is supported well from outside.

5. Construction of Round-wall

At the centre of the pit, a straight rod or pipe (the 0.5″ GI gas pipe) must be placed in an exact vertical position. At ground-level, a heavy pole or pipe has to be placed horizontally on the centre of the pit. The vertical pipe can now be secured to the horizontal pipe or pole. After securing, the vertical pipe has again to be checked whether it is still in the right position.

A string or wire can now be attached to the vertical pipe. The length of this wire can be found on the drawing under the dimension ‘F. One cm has to be added to this length to allow space for plastering. Every brick or stone which is laid in the round-wall has to be exactly F+ 1 cm away from the vertical pipe.

After deciding the radius of digester, the round wall is started to be constructed. The first row of bricks must be positioned on their sides so that a 4.5″ high, 9″ wide base is made. It is essential that first row is placed on a firm, untouched and level soil. The next rows of bricks can be positioned on their lengths so that the wall thickness becomes 4.5″.

It is not necessary to make pillars in the wall but the backfilling between wall and pit-side must be compacted with great care. This backfilling has to be done in the morning before starting the construction work. Earth should be well compacted by adding water and gentle ramming all along the circumference of the digester. Poor compaction will lead to cracks in round-wall and dome.

If stone is used for the construction of round wall, the wall should rest against the pit-side as it is difficult to have proper backfilling because of the irregular shape of the outside of the stone wall. The cement mortar used can be 1 cement-4 sand to I cement-6 sand depending on the quality of the sand.

The height of the round-wall can be found on the drawing under dimension ‘H’ when measured from the finished floor. The dung inlet pipe and toilet pipe must be placed in position when the round-wall is 35 cm high. To reduce the risk of blockages, the inlet pipe(s) must be placed as vertically as practical possible.

Exactly to the opposite of the dung inlet pipe, a 60 cm wide opening must be left in the round-wall which acts as manhole. The digested slurry also flows out to the outlet tank through this opening. The inlet pipe from the latrine should be placed as close as possible with the dung inlet pipe with a maximum distance of 45 degrees from the dung’ inlet on the dung inlet-centres-manhole line (hartline).

When the round-wall has reached the correct height, I inside must be plastered with a smooth layer of cement mortar with a mix of 1 cement – 3 sand. The digester floor can made from bricks or small stones with plaster in cement mortar.

6. Dome Construction

When the construction works of round wall as described above is completed than the dome has to be constructed. Before filling the pit with earth to make the mould for dome, backside of the round wall should be filled with proper compacted back-filling. If this is not done, the pressure of earth for the mould can lead to cracks in the round-wall.

On the vertical centre pipe a mark has to be made – distance “J”, as given in the drawing, from the finished floor. The compacted earth has to reach this level. The vertical pipe can now be removed by pulling it upwards. It has to be replaced by a shorter O0.5″ dia. pipe, approx. 0.5 metres length in the earth exactly at the same spot. Now the template should be used to make the shape of the dome. The top of the round-wall wall must be clean when the template is in use. The template can be checked by making sure the top is horizontal and the side exactly vertical. Furthermore, the part of the template that touches the round-wall must be in the same position all over the round wall.

It is important that the earth of the mould is well compacted. If the earth is further compressed after casting the dome, by its own weight and that of the concrete, it can lead to cracks in the dome. When the earth mould has the exact shape of the template, a thin layer of fine sand has to be spread on the mould-top by gently patting it on the surface. Any excess sand or soil that falls on the round-wall has to be removed.

The earth used for the mould has to be damp to prevent dry earth from soaking up water from freshly casted concrete.

Before starting the casting work enough manpower and construction materials like sand, gravel, cement and water has to be collected on the site. The casting has to be done as quickly as possible and without interruptions as this will negatively affect the quality of the cast. A constant, adequate supply of concrete (mix: 1 cement, 3 sand, 3 gravel) must be made for the mason. No concrete older than 30 minutes should be used.

A special care should be taken to maintain the thickness of dome while casting, i.e. the thickness in and near the edges should be more than the thickness in the centre. For 4, 6, 8 and 10 m3 plant, the thickness in the edge should be 25 cm where as the thickness in the centre should be 7 cm. Similarly, for 15 and 20 m3 plants, the thickness in the centre should be 8 and 9 cm respectively and the thickness in the age I should be 25 cm.

The small pipe on the top of the mould must be left in place till the main gas pipe is installed. This is to make sure that the main gas pipe is exactly in the centre.

Already during the casting, the concrete has to be protected against strong sunlight by covering it with jute bags or straw mats. This protection has to be left in place for at least one week. The day after the casting, the turret must be made.

Any delays can lead to leakage between main gas pipe and dome. Also from the day after the casting onwards, the dome has to be sprinkled with water 3 to 4 times a day which known as curing.

After approximately one week, depending temperature the earth of the mould can be removed through the manhole. When all earth is removed, the inside of the dome has to be thoroughly cleaned with a brush and clean water

On the clean surface the following plaster coats have to be applied to make the dome gas-tight.

1.      Cement-water flush

2.      10 mm layer, 1 cement – 2 sand, plaster

3.      5 mm layer, 1 cement – 1 sand, punning.

4.      Cement/acrylic emulsion paint coating, 1.5 paint-20 cement

5.      Cement/acrylic emulsion paint coating, 1 paint -2 cement

A plaster Coat must be at least one day old before next layer can be put on. When a layer of plaster is applied, the work must be executed with the greatest care and without interruptions. The well functioning of the plant is very depending on the gas tightness of the dome.

7. Construction Outlet Chamber

To construct the outlet tank, excavation has to be done just behind the manhole. The level of excavation can be measured from the digester floor by taking the dimension ‘I’ minus the thickness of the digester floor. The earth behind the manhole and under the outlet floor has to be very well compacted otherwise cracks will occur.

The inside dimensions of the outlet can be found on the drawing under A,B and D. The distance from the digester floor to the outlet floor is given by the dimension ‘I’.

It is important that these dimensions should be accurate as they determine the useful capacity of the gasholder. For the same reason the outlet floor and the top of the walls have to be level. The walls have to be vertical and finished with a smooth layer of cement plaster (mix: 1 cement – 3 sand). On the outside, the walls have to be supported with sufficient earth body up to the overflow level. This again is to avoid cracks.

The outlet tank should be on a slightly higher elevation than the surrounding so that there are no chances of water running into the outlet during the rainy season.

At the same time of dome casting, the concrete slabs for the outlet should be constructed. It is easy to make some additional concrete at this time and the slab will be well cured before they are placed on the outlet. The slabs must be 2.5″ to 3″ thick with proper reinforcement at 0,75″ from the bottom side. The slabs must be of such size that they can be handled by 4-5 men without great difficulty.

The surface, on which the slabs are casted, has to be flat and clean. Special care has to be taken for the compaction of the concrete, as small holes will expose the steel reinforcement to corrosive vapour coming from the slurry in the outlet and will cause the corrosion which may ultimately lead to the slab collapse. Hence, if holes are formed in the slab these should be blocked with plaster layer. The outlet cover slabs are essential to protect people and animals from falling inside and to avoid excessive vaporization of the slurry in dry season.

8. Construction of Inlet Pit

The inlet pit is constructed to mix dung and water. This can be constructed with or without a mixing device. Installation of a mixing device is preferable not only because it makes plant operation easier for the user but also because it improves the quality of mix. When a mixer is installed it has to be firmly attached to the structure, easy to operate, effective in the mixing process and the steel parts in contact with the dung are to be galvanized.

The top of the structure should not be more than one meter high from the ground level and both inside and outside of the pit has to be covered with a smooth layer of plaster (Mix: 1 cement-3 sand).

The bottom of the tank must be at least 5 cm above the outlet overflow level. The position of the inlet pipe in the floor must be such that a pole or rod can enter through it without obstructions. For the same reason the inlet pipe must be without bends.

Even though mixing device is not installed, the inlet pit should be round in shape as this is more economical material-wise and easier for hand mixing.

In case of toilet attachment to the plant it is better to construct without siphon or trap as the pan with siphon needs more water which may result excess water inside the digester. It is also not possible to de-block the pipe when the toilet has a trap. The toilet should not be farther than 45 degrees from the hart line. Additionally, the toilet pan level should be at least 25 cm above the outlet overflow level.

9. Lay-out of Pipeline

The gas pipe conveying the gas from the plant to users point is vulnerable for damages by people, domestic animals and rodents. Therefore, only light quality galvanized iron pipe should be used which must be, where possible, buried 1 foot below ground level. Fittings in the pipeline must be sealed with zinc putty, teflon tape or jute and paint. Any other sealing agent, like grease, paint only, soap etc. must not be allowed. To reduce the risk of leakage, the use of fittings, specially unions, should be kept to a necessary minimum. No fittings should be placed between the main gas valve and the dome gas pipe.

The biogas coming from the digester is saturated with water vapor. This water vapor will condense at the walls of the pipeline. If this condense water is not removed regularly, it will ultimately clog the pipeline. Hence, a water drain has to be placed in the pipeline. The position of the water drain should be vertically below the lowest point of the pipeline so that water will flow by gravity to the trap. Water can be removed by opening the drain. As this has to be done periodically, the drain must be well accessible and protected in a well, maintained drain pit.

For connecting burners with gas pipelines, use of transparent polyethylene hose must be avoided. Only neoprene rubber hose of the best quality should be used.

As soon as there is gas production, all joints and taps must be checked for leakage by applying a thick soap solution. If there is leakage the foam will either move or break.

10. Compost Pits

Compost pits are an integral part of the biogas plant; no plant is complete without them. A minimum of 2 compost pits must be dug near to the outlet overflow in such a way that the slurry can run freely into the pits. Enough earth body must remain however, at least 1 meter, between the pits and the outlet chamber to avoid cracking of the chamber walls. The total volume of the compost pits must be at least equal to the plant volume.

To make a potent and easy to use as fertilizer, the compost pits should be filled with agricultural residues together with the slurry from the plant.

The earth coming from digging the compost pits can be used for backfilling of the inlet and outlet chamber and for top filling on the dome.

For proper insulation during the cold season and as counter weight against the gas pressure inside, a minimum top filling of 40 cm compacted earth is required on the dome. If, e.g. because of high ground water table, the plant is not positioned deep enough, the top filling will be prone to erosion due to wind and rain. In these cases proper protection, i.e. with a dry stone circular wall, has to be applied.

If the concerned mason and plumber strictly follow the above described instructions during the construction phase, the complete plant will be of high quality. Hence, the plant owner will be benefitted ultimately from the investment and positive return will be achieved as per the expectations. This again will persuade his relative and neighbors to install a biogas plant as well, while a poorly constructed plant will do harm to the reputation of biogas technology.

Construction Summary for four Cattles

Dia of Well 4 feet

Height of Well 9 feet

Height of Hodhi 3 feet

Width of Hodhi 2 feet

Dia of Pipe for Dung 6 inch

Length of Pipe 9 feet

Well must be in Sun site.

50% water mix in Dung.

No need to do empty well.

 

Prove that one Cubic Meter =35.315 CFT

 

Solution

 

because 1 inch has 25.4mm (millimeter) hence 12inch(1 foot) has 304.8 (25.4*12) millimeter. One foot has (304.8/1000)0.3048 Meter, Hence one Meter has (1/.3048)3.281 Feet.

 

Convert Cubic Meter into Height & Dia Feet

 

Let say, dia=6 and Cubic Meter=4

 

Find

 

Area of Well=?

 

Volume of Well=?

 

As we know, area of well=πr 

 

π=3.14

 

(if we multiply dia of well  with 3.14,cercumferene (parameter or moheet in Urdu) will come, it means it is universal truth that circumference of is equal to (dia*3.14) .

 

Area of Well= πr2  

 

As we know Dia=6 Feet

 

Radius=r=6/2=3 Feet

 

Area of Well=3.14*32=3.14*9=28.26 CFT

 

Now we will find Volume of Well

 

As we know volume of well=π*r2*Height

 

Or

 

Volume of well=Area of Well*Height

 

Volume=28.26*Height

 

As we know one cubic meter=35.315

 

Where as dia=6 feet

 

Volume of well=6*35.315=211.89 CFT Equation1

 

It means

 

211.89=28.26*Height

 

Height=211.89/28.26=7.49 Feet

 

Checking (Pertal)

 

Volume=Area of well*height of well

 

Volume=28.26*7.49=211.66 Equation2

 

Equation1 is approximately equal to equation 2.

 

It means our answer is correct.

 

 

 

Formula of Bricks Calculation

There are two formulas for room and well.

First we calculate bricks of room for general knowledge, suppose

Length of room is 15 feet

Height of room is 10 feet

Width of room is 12 feet

9 inchi (9/12)0.75 feet wall width

Normal Door size 3 by 7 feet (3 width & 7 height)

Normal Window size 4 by 4 feet (4 height & 4 width)

As you know, each brick’s length is 9 inch and its width is 4.5inch.

First calculate two Walls’s length 15

2 walls*Length*Height*Wall Width

ANS1=2*15*10*.75

ANS1=225 CFT

2nd Calculate two Walls’s width

2Walls*Width*Height*wall Width

Ans2=2*12*10*.75

Ans2=180 CFT

Total CFT=ANS1+ANS2

Total CFT=225+180=405CFT

Total Bricks used in room=Total CFT*Brick CFT

Total Bricks=405*13.5

Total Bricks=5468

Formula to Calculate Well Bricks

Dia of Well is 4 Feet

Height of Well is 9 Feet

Wall Width of well is 9 inch (9/12)0.75feet

Length of Well=2*π*R

π =3.14

R=dia/2=4/2=2 feet

Length=2*3.14*2=12.56feet

Length *Height* Wall Width

12.5*9*.75

=84.78 CFT

Total Bricks Used In Well=Total CFT*Bricks CFT

Total Bricks=84.78*13.5=1145 Bricks

Calculate Bricks of Hodhi (Mixture)

Height of Hodhi is 3 Feet

Length & Width is 2 Feet

Wall Width 4.5inch (4.5/12) .375 Feet

2 * Height * Length * Wall Width

2*3*2*.375

Ans1=4.5 CFT

=2*Height*Width*Wall Width

=2*3*2*.375

Ans2=4.5 CFT

Total CFT=Ans1+Ans2

Total CFT=4.5+4.5=9 CFT

Total Bricks used in Hodhi=Total CFT*Bricks CFT

Total Bricks=9*13.5

Total Bricks=122

Total Bricks Used in Bio Gas Plant

Total Bricks=Total Bricks used in Well + Total Bricks used in Hodhi + Some Extra Bricks for Drained Nali

Total Bricks=1145+122+200

 

Total Bricks=1467, it means Approximately 1500 Bricks are used.

Calculate Total Cost of Biogas Plant

 

Price of 1000 Bricks=4500

 

Price of 1500 Bricks =(4500+2250) 6750 Rs

 

Estimated Bags of Cemented =5 Bags

 

Price of 5Cement Bag=5*480=200=2400Rs

 

Estimated Iron Rods Used=18 Rods

 

Weight of Iron Rods=10Kgs

 

Price of Iron Rods=10*85=850Rs

 

Price of Gravel (Concrete) =500 Rs

 

Price of sand=500Rs

 

Daily Wages=1500Rs

 

Total Cost on Bio Gas Plant=Price of Cement+ Price of Sand+ Price of Gravel+ Price of Iron Rod+ Price of Bricks +

 

Daily Wages.

 

Total Cost Bio-Gas Plant=2400+500+500+850+6750+1500= 12500 Rupees

 

 Very Small & Very Cheap Bio-Gas Project 

First Step

2nd Step

3rd Step

Biogas Plant By Dr.Ashraf Sahibzada

Biogas Plant By Dr.Arif

 Construction of Biogas Plant

How Bio-Gas Plant Works

2nd Video

Benefits of Bio-Gas

57 responses to “BioGas Plant

  1. Dear Sirs,

    We are interested for a biogas plant to produce electricity of 1MW.
    We wish to use domestic (household) waste to have biogas.
    Would you please advise:
    1.- Can you make such a plant for us?
    2.- What quantity (M3) of gs is required?
    3.- Could we have from household waste and if yes how many to ns per day?
    4.- The approximate cost.

    Thanks and regards
    Nicos Anagnostatos

    • Dear Nicos Anagnostatos ,
      actually i search those problems who are facing world or my country Pakistan.When I have found problems then I try to search their solutions when i founds solutions then I upload these solutions on my site.I do that work totally free.It is not my business and not need to become famous person.I am sending a chart and please study it then read other comments.

      Approximate Fuel Consumption Chart

      This chart approximates the fuel consumption of a diesel generator based on the size of the generator and the load at which the generator is operating at. Please note that this table is intended to be used as an estimate of how much fuel a generator uses during operation and is not an exact representation due to various factors that can increase or decrease the amount of fuel consumed.

      a

      • Superb i really like you and your research.I want to ask 1 question?
        How gas generator are operated by bio gas?
        because we have a gas generator in factory because of gas shortage in country?
        thats why we decide produce bio gas in bio gas plant and attached them in gas generator so can you give me the any kind of idea or any kind of favorable i will be very thank full to you

  2. Dear Sir,

    I am interested for a biogas plant to produce electricity of 250KW
    Would you please advise:

    1.- What quantity (M3) of gs is required?
    2.- The approximate cost.

    Thanks and regards
    Muzmmal Sajjad

    • dear muzmmal sajjad,
      250 kw generator approximately 62.5 kg{(250 gram*250 kw/1000} gas consumed in one hour if you will run generator 24 hours then (24*62.5)1500 kgs bio gas needed.as i mentioned one Buffalo give 15 kg dung where as 50% methane (bio gas ) is available in Dung,it means one buffalo can produce 7.5 kg bio gas you need 1500 kg(1500/7.5=200) it means you must have 200 buffaloes then you can run 250 kw electric generator.please find price of 250 kw electric generator from market if you have not already 250 kw genset. you need 3000 kg dung ,see chart which i mentioned in my site (Size of Plant) approximately 500 M3 plant you required, it is better for you that you should consult any bio gas construction company in this regards. if you have any problem regarding me please don not hesitate to contact me.

      best regards

      zafar iqbal

      • thanks sir am on it.
        but
        many CNG pumps are useing dule fule system.50% diesel and 50% naturel gas.They said our 250KW Diesel generator approximately consume 10 Kg naturel gas and consume 10 ltr Diesel .what did you says about this?

      • dear muzmmal sajjad,
        one important thing is that we can not deny technology,if they say that only 20 kg ,means 10 kg gas and 10 ltr then you should visit their plant.if they have such plant , then you can purchase such plant.

      • Dear Z. Iqbal, Sorry to interrupt. As an over sea Pakistani in North America, I found this site and the on going dialog accidentally. Very interesting, but far from reality. the on going dialog suggests that, Mr Sajjid is looking for an agricultural bio gas project and not an industrial bio gas project. There is a big difference. The bio gas engine performance depends upon methane content (varies by type of feed to the animal). You should make necessary corrections.
        • Actual power generated does not depend on number of animals.
        • Bio gas production does not depend on number of Kg of the dung used either.
        • Note: There are cheaper methods too then constructing expensive plants.
        • One litre of urine can produce electric to power a 60 watt bulb or a transistor radio for 6-12 hour (uric acid %)
        . A family of five can produce power up to 60 hours.
        (Some fellow, a doctor (I do not remember his name) on ” you tube” promoted the concept of number of animals and dung by weight. Typically the idea is unacceptable, unless all Pakistani animals have same feed, same breed and care.
        Najeeb Senior Scientist

      • Dear Najeeb,
        Thanks for comments or give new ideas but as you know now-days, people without proof, they are getting late to accept right theories. No doubt technology or search continuously growing towards improvements, no one can deny. I just give simple information about Bio-Gas but as you say this will be right. Please give chart of varies by type of feed to the animal. I will appreciate you if you send enough information for those people who understand easily.

        Thanks & Regards,

        Zafar Iqbal

  3. Sir i want to know how much quanity of gas is required to run 2 hp motor 3- phase motor and 3 hp motor motor 3- phase motor

  4. Sir i want to know how much quanity of gas is required to run 2 hp motor 3- phase motor and 3 hp motor motor 3- phase motor
    And please snd me your mobile phone number

  5. hi,

    Mr. Zafar Iqbal Kharal sir

    i nilesh muradaya from india has read your artical of biogas plant.

    can i know if i wants to produce 50 kva electricity by biogas generator for 24 hours then how much dung will be required
    and what kind of generators

    • Dear,
      very sorry for late replying.50 kva generator consume approximately 10 kg gas per hour so you need 10*24=240 kg for 24 hours.you need 240*2=480 kg manure.no need for specified generator.common gas operating genset is sufficient.

  6. Superb i really like you and your research.I want to ask 1 question?
    How gas generator are operated by bio gas?
    because we have a gas generator in factory because of gas shortage in country?
    thats why we decide produce bio gas in bio gas plant and attached them in gas generator so can you give me the any kind of idea or any kind of favorable i will be very thank full to you

    • Dear Mateen Kasbati,
      you can run gas generator with bio gas.It is better for you , consult any generator specilaist.as i know you have adjust boi gas pressure and add new device water aspirator to absorving moisture.But if you want to use generator in factory,indeed it is large generator ,so you have to need large bio gas plant.It depends on you that you affaord so much munure.

  7. Dear Mr Iqbal, your detailed description of construction is referring to a drawing which you havent included. FOr example you are referring to Point I and J and B etc, but you havent attached the drawing, can you please email me the detailed contruction drawing on fshaukat@hotmail.com

  8. dear zafar bhai

    i really appreciate ur study ur skill and ur love with ur work all pakistanis should feel proud of u .
    before reading this page heard a lot about biogas and thought that may be its practical but i felt like
    sheikh chilli ka khawab
    but after reading this i am sure its a workable solution
    from ur above knowledge sharing i have calculated that for my requirement which is
    1) 50 kva gas generator 24 hrs/day
    2) 10 gas heaters 24 hrs/day
    i need
    10*24*2=480 kg
    250*10*24*2/1000=120 kg
    total 600 kg dung which means 40 buffalows

    and i also think the plant i need is 10 times the plant u described above
    which means its cost will be almost 125000
    please correct me sir if i am wrong
    waiting for ur reply
    adeel tariq

  9. It is use full for construction of biogas plant plz help me for 50 cubic meter biogas plant .also scrubbing .comprrssed

  10. This is really a hard work. And I congratulate you on writing this report and the convincing style. Such a useful information and guidance provided in this report. I salute you.
    I would dare to ask only one question that is it possible to get benefit of bio gas in cities like Lahore and can we run a 40 kva generator on it for almost 20 hours and at what cost I mean cost of plant and daily running and repair cost. Thanks and regards. Sh.Hassan Ijaz

    • Dear Sheikh Hassan Ijaz,
      I am very thankful that you so much encourage me.repairing cost is not too much, easily affordable .but cost on new plant is matter ,it is better for you ,that you consult Lahore based professional bio gas plant construction company then you 100% judge its cost.because I uploaded data previous year you may know price fluctuation is enough.Now a days cost will vary.so consult from different companies.

  11. Similarly, the budget limitations through cost effective garage flooring is making an effort to reach all types of commercial and residential customers.
    The sealer is low gloss with and oil base finish to it. Putting a sealer on your garage floor
    is a great project to do so that the floor doesn’t draw as much
    moisture as it would if a sealer wasn’t applied.

  12. kharal sahib,
    bahut kamaal kee saait banaayi hai aapne, ekdam simple, samajhne ke liye bahut asaan. bio gas ke bare mein meri knowledge bahut badhi. mein koshish karungaa kee tne simple comcepts se kisi ko bio gas plant lagaane ke liye motivate kar sakoon.
    kind regards
    virendra gupta
    India

    • first time it take one month approx ,bio gas start coming out as where your question raw material come after how many days ,boss it is continuously process as you put new dung as raw material come out automatically.

      • THANK YOU SIR! now what I understand if I have one Cubic meter dung daily then I have to construct biogas plant of 40 cubic meter capacity for continuous working. Am I right??

  13. Dear Zafar Sb

    Have you any idea to use kitchen food waste (as i searched on net that kitchen waste is better than animal waste) for biogas. How its plant will be made and working and what size do we need to produce .750 kg gas daily at with what quantity of food waste.

  14. AslamoAlikum Zafar Iqbal sahab,
    hope you will be fine.
    Zafar sb i want to build bio gas plant for run 10kva genset continuously (Prime).
    kindly give me some details about bio gas plant construction plane & expected cost.
    kindly give me your cell number & email address. if you want.
    I am waiting your kind response.
    best regards
    Aftab Mughal
    aftabmughal78@yahoo.com
    0342-6905658

    • you are very smart ,you touch me linkedin & then send mail me at yahoo & then comment on my site then call me ,Wonderful then you are asking for Cell# & email address perhap you got response late therefore you try at all my sources .Boss I will reply today insha allah on your ID.

  15. AOA Zafar Iqbal Sahiib,
    Pleasure to communicate
    Your all above work is very impressive and useful. May Allah grant you success.
    I have question regarding biogas plant in the above article. We are trying to generate electricity and gas from biogas and according to your above article, 0.86 Kg biogas will be consume in one hour to run 4 kva generator, this value and other values for running generators are too low according to some biogas experts who are constructing these plants in all over Pakistan. According to them, if we want to run 4 KVA generator in 20/25 m3 biogas plant, the generator will consume all gas very quickly as compare to stove. suppose there are 12 cows and total waste is around 120 Kg and if we build 25 m3 plant then we can run stove for 18 hrs but electricity can only be supplied for around 6-8 hours and even this supply requires 2 hours interval because of slow biogas formation process and quickly consumes of biogas in generator, we need to give some time to allow biogas formation so that a generator can work properly again. But according to your above details, we can generate electricity & gas for so many days if we are collecting 100 Kg of waste.
    I will be really thankful if you can guide us on a point that for how many hours daily in real we can run the 4 kva or 3 kva generator in 25 m3 biogas plant with collection of 120 Kg waste daily from 12 cows?

    Waiting for your kind response
    Jazakuallh and thanks
    Asif
    0334 317 1889
    sifkhan8@yahoo.co.uk

    • Dear Asif,
      Sorry for late replying , Four KVA Generator consumes 0.86 kg Bio-Gas in one hour.I had taken these figures from china.You may also put a quotation of different capacities of generators on http://www.alibaba.com/ then you will believe.If you have 12 cows then they will give 120 kg manure so you can produce 60 kg Bio Gas Daily.When you make New Bio Gas Plant ,You Fill it manure & water & you take rest 15 days in Hot Session & 1 month in Cold Session then Bio-Gas produces ,Then you put 120 kg daily dung & get Bio-gas daily continuously.

      • AOA Zafar Sb,

        Really thanks for reply

        You r right, I have checked, the values are almost same. It is really interesting figure for me, may it is very optimistic.
        But I will practically check when I make this system.

        Thanks & Jzk

        Asif

  16. salam Zafar Sahib
    you have done a great job to give a simple information about biogas.you are really a genius man.i really appreciate your work.
    i have a question?
    how much cost and how many animals are required for 10 kv 3 phase generator and how many hours it will work.
    thanks
    Mian Imran Malik
    Lahore

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